Tips & Advice
What is sloping in excavation?
Sloping is a term that refers to a safety function when working in trenches. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that all workers in trenches 5 feet deep or more, must be protected by a trench protective system, such as sloping, shoring and shields. Sloping is digging the trench walls at an angle that slopes, thus preventing or minimizing the possibility of a wall collapse.
What is benching an excavation?
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that all workers in trenches 5 feet deep or more, must be protected by a trench protective system. Benching is a method of protection in which the walls of the trench are shaped like a set of stairs (or benches). This gives the trench the appearance of a set of stairs going up. This design prevents possible trench wall collapse and is similar to the slope method.
What is a trench excavation?
Trench excavations are when earth is removed leaving an underground excavation site that is deeper than it is wide, with the trench being no more than 15-feet wide. These can be used for pipes, cellars, highways, drainage systems, or any other appropriate functions.
What is an open excavation?
Open area excavation is the removal of an area of land, usually done one layer or strata at a time. Strata layers are used to measure time and are an essential tool in archaeological digs. During a dig, a layer will be removed for digging up or searching for fossils or other research data. This method preserves the strata.
Deep excavation is generally considered digging down to a depth of 15 feet or more. These excavations require critical planning, and will usually require retaining walls to keep the site structurally sound.The deeper you dig, the greater the danger, so it becomes even more critical to plan and execute these excavations carefully.
How much does it cost to hire an excavation contractor?
The cost to hire an excavation contractor is going to depend on several factors. What is the job? How big is this excavation going to be? What types of equipment and and how much will be necessary? Where is the site location of the site: is it remote or local? The best way to get an idea of the cost is to get an estimate (or estimates) from a contractor who specializes in the type of excavation you need, in your local area.
What are the hazards of excavation?
The most common hazards on excavation sites are the collapsing of the walls of the excavation site. This can be a result of poor construction; human error; natural disasters, like weather or lightning; or even sinkholes. You also have to be very aware of power lines and underground structures. Mother Nature, especially rain, can wreak havoc on construction sites and excavated lands. Heavy machinery accidents are always a looming possibility. Each site will have their hazards, so always be aware.
What are the types of excavation?
There are approximately several types of excavation, depending on type and material. Let’s start with type of excavated material, which can be divided into: topsoil, earth, rock, muck, and unclassified.
Then there is the type or purpose of excavations: borrow, bridge preparation, channel, drainage, footing, roadway, and stripping.
- Topsoil excavation removes the top layer of earth, usually including vegetation – like stripping away the grass.
- Earth excavation is removing the layer under the topsoil, but on top of bedrock.
- Muck excavation removes materials with heavy water saturation and poor quality soil.
- Unclassified covers removal of any combination of those materials.
- Borrow excavation is used to get materials, like for embankments or fills, from sources that are off-site.
- Bridge excavation is removing materials in preparation for bridge foundations, like abutments or the footing.
- Channel excavation is relocating a stream that flows through a right-of-way.
- Drainage excavation is the removal of materials associated with the building of drainage systems.
- Footing excavation is the process of digging a column or wall foundation for a building.
- Roadway excavation is the removal of materials related to the building of a new road.
- Stripping generally is the removal of all materials between the original surface, and the top of the surface that can be used for a permanent embankment.
What does an excavation contractor do?
Excavation is more than just digging up the earth and hauling it away. Excavation contractors engage in site preparation, including confirming the site is prepared and legally ready for construction. In addition to hiring crews and doing the actual excavation, contractors must have permits and all the legal paperwork necessary, both before and during the operation. Site clean-up is handled by the contractor. Site management is also a critical aspect of the job, including ensuring safety standards are met, and the property and equipment are safe and secure.