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What is ADHD?
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that typified by persistent problems with inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsive behavior. ADHD can be associated with social problems, poor work or school performance, low self-esteem, and substance abuse, among other problems. ADHD may be accompanied by other disorders, such as depression or anxiety. Treatment can be very effective and includes stimulant and non-stimulant medications, psychological counseling (psychotherapy), executive function coaching, and treatment of co-occurring conditions.
Other conditions that can contribute to inattentiveness include (but are not limited to) traumatic brain injury, mood disorders, anxiety, sleep apnea, convergence insufficiency (a disorder of binocular vision), sensory processing disorders, sleep disorders, allergies, and substance use disorders.
What are the signs of ADHD?
People with ADHD can exhibit problems with inattention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Typically, ADHD symptoms start before age 12 and continue into adulthood. Symptoms can range from mild to severe. Someone exhibiting the following might not have ADHD, so an assessment should be given.
Symptoms of inattention can include: overlooking details, inability to focus on a task, appearing not to listen, difficulty transitioning from task to task, difficulty following through on a task, difficulty with organization, losing things, easily distracted, and forgetful
Symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsive behavior can include: being fidgety, difficulty staying seated, being constantly in motion, running or climbing or needing to leave seat in inappropriate situations, difficulty being quiet during an activity, overly talkative, interrupting others or blurting out answers, difficulty waiting for a turn
What is cognitive behavioral therapy?
A common type of talk therapy used in clinical psychology, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is based on the idea that distorted thoughts and misinterpretations of experience trigger uncomfortable feelings and maladaptive behavioral responses. The goal of therapy is to train clients to become more aware of -- and to appropriately question -- their own automatic assumptions and reactions to the world. The result is client development of more realistic perspectives and responses to their internal experience, as well as to the world.
What is a forensic neuropsychologist?
A forensic neuropsychologist has the expertise to testify in a legal proceeding. A court, attorney, or worker’s compensation insurance company may request a forensic neuropsychologist in a personal injury cases involving a brain injury.
Can a clinical neuropsychologist prescribe medication?
No. A clinical neuropsychologist is a PhD or a Psy.D, but not a medical doctor (MD), so he or she cannot prescribe medication.
Neuropsychology is a branch of clinical psychology that studies the relationship of brain function and anatomy to behavior, emotion, and cognition.
What is a clinical neuropsychologist?
Clinical neuropsychology is a sub-field of psychology concerned with the applied science of brain-behavior relationships. Clinical neuropsychologists use this knowledge in the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and or rehabilitation of patients across the lifespan with neurological, medical, neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions, as well as other cognitive and learning disorders. The branch of neuropsychology associated with children and young people is pediatric neuropsychology.
What are neuropsychiatric symptoms?
Symptoms of neuropsychiatric disturbance include, mood disturbance, verbal and physical aggression, apathy, depression, irritability, agitation, anxiety, eating and sleeping disturbances, delusions and/or hallucinations, disinhibition (lack of ability to filter one’s speech or behavior, aberrant motor behavior (wandering) and Parkinson’s-like signs, behavioral and personality changes, delirium, and cognitive impairment (memory, language, planning or organizational/executive functioning problems).
What is a neurobehavioral exam?
A neurobehavioral exam is a non-invasive method of testing by a neuropsychologist, used to evaluate the performance of the central nervous system. There are many neurobehavioral tests for specific areas of deficit, such as intelligence, memory, language, executive function, and visual/spatial ability. The frequently used Cognistat test assesses multiple neuropsychological functions.
What is the difference between a neuropsychiatrist and a neuropsychologist?
Neuropsychiatrists are physicians with advanced training in neurology and psychiatry who diagnose and treat behavioral conditions that stem from neurological diagnoses, such as dementia, traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, or stroke. As physicians, they are able to prescribe diagnostic testing and medications.
Neuropsychologists specialize in cognitive, aptitude, and psychological testing that can assist with the diagnosis of neurological and psychological conditions, as well as with the monitoring and assessment of ongoing treatment. They have earned a doctorate, but because they are not physicians, they do not prescribe medication.
Both can recommend specific psychological and rehabilitative treatments to specifically address the diagnoses determined by their evaluations. They can refer patients to the other, if needed.