There are approximately several types of excavation, depending on type and material. Let’s start with type of excavated material, which can be divided into: topsoil, earth, rock, muck, and unclassified.
Then there is the type or purpose of excavations: borrow, bridge preparation, channel, drainage, footing, roadway, and stripping.
- Topsoil excavation removes the top layer of earth, usually including vegetation – like stripping away the grass.
- Earth excavation is removing the layer under the topsoil, but on top of bedrock.
- Muck excavation removes materials with heavy water saturation and poor quality soil.
- Unclassified covers removal of any combination of those materials.
- Borrow excavation is used to get materials, like for embankments or fills, from sources that are off-site.
- Bridge excavation is removing materials in preparation for bridge foundations, like abutments or the footing.
- Channel excavation is relocating a stream that flows through a right-of-way.
- Drainage excavation is the removal of materials associated with the building of drainage systems.
- Footing excavation is the process of digging a column or wall foundation for a building.
- Roadway excavation is the removal of materials related to the building of a new road.
- Stripping generally is the removal of all materials between the original surface, and the top of the surface that can be used for a permanent embankment.